Meldonium in sports
The use of pharmacological drug Meldonium is one of the most discussed topics both in domestic and in foreign media. This substance for some time was permitted to receive athletes, but later WADA — World anti-Doping Agency has officially acknowledged his doping and made the list of banned drugs. Despite this, many domestic scientists and experts on sports nutrition do not share this decision. They believe Meldonium absolutely safe drug which does not apply to incentive physical activity means.
To understand this situation and the ongoing debate around the drug, one should get acquainted with the history of its creation, scope, use, benefits and harms that it can cause the body. Not less important and of interest to many athletes the question is why his admitted doping.
History and General information
In medicine, the drug known as substance "Mildronat". It protects and stimulant that normalizes cellular function when lack of nutrients and hypoxia, that is, in the absence of adequate oxygen supply.
The use of the substance in medicine is extensive. It is applied in the complex drug therapy of ischemic heart disease, heart attacks, congestive heart failure. With 2012 on the territory of the Russian Federation the drug is included in the list vital. You can buy it in tablets at the price from 150 to 270 rubles.
The substance was created in the seventies of the last century, in the Latvian Institute of organic synthesis. It was originally patented as a drug, stimulating the growth of domestic animals and birds. It was used extensively in both the agricultural and industrial sectors. The idea of using Meldonium for medical purposes, according to the Creator of the drug Ivars Kalvins, came much later.
On the territory of the United States of America a patent for the production of the drug was issued in 1984. In the USA there are allowed to use analogues of the substance of Mildronate, but to find them in the free market is practically impossible. This situation is in no way related to the fact that the drug is useless or harmful. Neither the doctors nor the pharmacists there is no doubt in high efficiency Meldonium in the medical plan.
Dosage form, medical indications for reception of pharmacological action
Mildronate — a white powdery crystalline substance that is available for oral administration in tablet form and for injections in the form of capsules.
The drug is prescribed:
- in chronic bronchitis and asthma and other pathologies of the respiratory system, one symptom of which is oxygen deficiency;
- suffering from ischemia, heart failure, stroke or heart attack;
- patients with nervous and physical exhaustion, and reduced performance arising after the excessive load;
- against such pathological States as heart failure;
- for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases such as bleeding in the retina, retinopathy, thrombosis of ophthalmic veins;
- in cases of complications of diabetes;
- in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome occurring in II or III stage of alcoholism.
The drug promotes the rapid recovery of the body after surgery, and prescribed to patients in the postoperative period.
Receiving Meldonium athletes due to the stimulating effect of the drug. Despite this, there is a view that make it healthy person is not really advisable.
The action of Mildronate is to accelerate the synthesis process and the movement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the cellular structures. The substance has a beneficial impact on energetic and functional status of cells and tissues. This pharmacological property of the drug manifests itself in the following way:
- slows the necrosis of the heart muscle during heart attacks;
- improves the process of blood circulation in coronary heart disease and stroke;
- enriches cellsoxygen in accordance with the requirements in the occurrence of hypoxia — oxygen deficiency.
Taken in tablet form (capsules), the drug is well absorbed, being absorbed in the digestive tract. Meldonium bioavailability, i.e. the amount of drug that reaches the site of action in the body is 78%. The maximum concentration of a substance in the blood after ingestion comes after an hour and a half. Withdrawal of the drug from the body after 12 hours or a day. Some samples can detect the remnants of it, even when after the last reception has passed 120 days.
Meldonium is contraindicated to persons under 18 years, women in any trimester of pregnancy, in the presence of individual intolerance to the auxiliary substances or active component of the drug. You need to take medicine only as directed by your doctor. Failure dosage may cause pressure surges, upset stomach, tachycardia, redness, itching, swelling.
Special attention is paid to the influence of this drug on diabetics. Tests performed on animals showed that the drug reduces the plasma glucose, but does not affect the concentration of insulin. In addition, it is the prevention of acidosis and other metabolic complications.
The use in sports
Bodybuilders and other athletes started to take Meldonium recently. At first he belonged to the vitamin remedy which has no effect on athletic performance. However after a dope scandal relationship to the drug has changed dramatically. Mildronate officially recognized hormone and modulator of metabolism. So, take it as during training and during competition is strictly prohibited.
In spite of this, a number of domestic and foreign experts firmly believe that the athletes never took Meldonium as an incentive or performance enhancing tools. In their view, the drug has always been used exclusively as helping to adapt to stress and recover after a hard workout stuff.
Meldonium treated prohibited for admission for athletes drugs from 1 January 2016. Violation of this regulation, the athlete is threatened by disqualification for a period of four years.
The scandal with the doping in Russian sport began with the fact that Maria Sharapova has confessed to receiving Meldonium for ten years. As she says tennis player, a drug she was scheduled for a doctor's prescription. The drug was taken by many athletes. The total list has over 60 athletes who do not agree with the conclusions made in the result of monitoring.
This view is athletes share some of the representatives of the government of the Russian Federation. According to Vice-Premier A. Dvorkovich, there is a need for some additional research and analysis. The Russian President believes that the scandal with the recognition of Meldonium as doping should not be seen as the result of an international conspiracy, but it is necessary to take preventive measures for timely response made to the list of prohibited substances changes.
According to Professor Kalvins, who created Meldonium, this drug, by definition, cannot be doping. Contains the inflammation of a medicine intended for the treatment of heart disease, but no evidence of its positive impact on physical possibility.
Theoretically, athletes who take Meldonium or analogues of this drug, should expect physical deterioration than improvement. This is due to the fact that the substance slows the process of oxidation of fatty acids. According to Kalvins, the decision of WADA is a serious professional mistake.
A number of specialists does not recognize Meldonium doping, that is, denies the link between this drug and increased athletic performance. Regardless of the controversy surrounding the doping scandal, there are severalproven facts about the drug that do not cause any doubts:
- Mildronate is an effective pharmacological tool in the treatment of cardiac and some other ailments;
- full-scale studies that would confirm the fact that the drug increases the endurance, was not carried out, therefore, the conclusions of WADA that that substance has pronounced doping properties raise some doubts;
- to take Meldonium as a stimulant and mental and physical activity people who do not have health problems, it is not recommended;
- the drug ensures a positive impact on the health of athletes who have problems with cardiovascular system, but did not win the competition.
Make Mildronate and its analogues before the end of the scandal with the doping athletes, participating in competitions, certainly, should not be. If the medication is prescribed by a qualified physician to refuse treatment for fear of negative consequences is not necessary.